- Julius de Jong
Improve Your Posture, Improve Your Life (Episode 24-39)
Tiny tweaks will lead to big changes
We carry ourselves our entire lives. How we do so, determines the quality of our lives. It determines our health, wellbeing, and even the quality of our relationships. Our posture is at the center of this. The way we hold our body determines the way we feel. Vice versa, this is also true. However, when we become conscious of its power, our posture can become an instrument over which we hold control, instead of the mere consequence of our feelings and habits. ‘Posture […] has a deep connection with emotions. The proprioceptive and kinesthetic feedback of the arrangement of body segments and balances goes directly to our brain, involving the medial prefrontal cortex, the only area capable of altering the limbic system and emotional states’ (Montanari, 2015). This means that how we carry ourselves, directly impacts how we feel. I’ve always felt that the way I carry myself is important. I’ve been fascinated with the effects of our body’s posture on how we feel and perform. Good form, in sports, makes all the difference. The same is true for life. Good form makes all the difference.
To learn more about good posture, how to preserve our body for longevity, and how to use it most effectively, I’ve decided to research posture. Apart from the regular reading, I’ve also had the pleasure to interview Olivier Girard about this topic. Olivier is a mechanical engineer by education, specialized in ergonomics. He then followed a paramedical education in posture and exercise therapy, the Mensendieck method, in Amsterdam. From there he began combining his knowledge of both our environment, the ergonomics, and the body in a holistic way. My talk with him was great and highly interesting. An eye-opening even. I learnt a lot. Of course, I hope you’ll continue reading. But if pressed for time, make sure you at least watch the interview with Olivier, as I know it will improve your life. He explained things in simple terms and makes improving your posture easy and straight forward.
What influences our posture
‘Posture is what you do, consciously or not, with each muscle or joint of your body. Posture changes every microsecond. Posture then, is really how we use the body’ (Girard, 2022). ‘Posture is a very complex interplay between the neurological and musculoskeletal systems within the body, which all come together to make up a specific position’ (Low and Ilano, 2017). Richard Brennan defines posture as ‘[t]he relationship of one or more parts of the body to the rest’ (Brennan, 2012). When that relationship is free, good posture happens naturally. Contrary, when this relationship is restricted due to tension, poor posture is inevitable, irrespective of the position we adopt. ‘To achieve [good posture] we need to start to become aware of, and let go of, the unnecessary and unconscious tension that we carry’ (Brennan, 2012). As Olivier explained, there are a lot of variables that influence our posture. For instance, our desk and chair determine how we sit. But also our psyche. Likewise, our habits influence our posture. We tend to sleep in the same way, ride our bikes in the same way, and have certain environmental impacts influencing our posture. ‘In regard to posture and alignment, the habits of certain postures can also be ingrained in the body’ (Low and Ilano, 2017).
There are also neurological reflexes which influence our posture. We all have seen people fall asleep in a bus or airplane. Their heads start to sink, and their bodies lean a certain way as they fall asleep. At times, they may jerk upright without even waking up. This is a neurological reflex of the body keeping it upright which functions without any conscious effort. During the body’s physiological processes, it tends to self-regulate to restore equilibrium. Because of this, our bodies naturally like to be at the lowest possible state of energy. We love to relax. ‘The lowest possible energy state of the body is the parasympathetic nervous system state: eating, relaxing, lying down, and sleeping. Likewise, hunching over and sagging requires the least energy output from the body’ (Low and Ilano, 2017). Time is also a huge factor for the development of our posture. When we do a lot of desk work, hunched over into our screens, the body then adapts to this, loosening certain muscles while tightening others. All, to accommodate and adapt the body to that often used (slouched) position. Then, when we move back into good posture from this learnt bad posture, it will become uncomfortable. This because our body has adapted to the poor posture, making it feel normal, which it is not. Therefore, we must stay conscious of our positions and our habits. Without this, our bodies adopt bad habits without our awareness.
Why becoming aware of our posture matters
According to Jeffry LaBianco, there are three main causes of injury: 1). repetitive movements, 2). traumatic movements, and 3). prolonged insufficient positioning. We have a lot of repetitive daily tasks, such as for instance desk work, or perhaps driving. This forces us to perform certain movements over and over again, using improper body mechanics that cause pains and strains, and place ourselves in unnatural, damaging positions. Hereby, we put ourselves at risk. ‘By understanding how an injury is caused, and by simply thinking about the positions we place ourselves in, we have the means to prevent discomfort by changing our daily habits’ (LaBianco, 2020).
Why good posture matters
‘Poor posture not only leaves you exhausted at the end of the day, but also can cause or exacerbate a wide range of muscular problems, poor breathing habits and stiff joints’ (Brennan, 2012). It can lead to the acceleration of arthritis and can literally make us feel down. There is a direct link to our posture and our emotional state. When we feel down or depressed, our back tends to round and our shoulders slouch forward. But, as Olivier explains, it is also true the other way around. ‘When we slouch forward and have a round back, our lungs are folded, we have therefore less oxygen, and therefore less energy. This will reflect in our mood and everything. But this will also reflect in [our] body language, i.e., [our] relationships to others, and [this] in turn will again impact [our] psyche’ (Girard, 2022). Posture can influence our emotional state and our sensitivity to pain (Dalkilinç, 2015). Or as Montanari wrote, ‘[b]ody tensions and the perception of postural imbalance are experienced by us directly as moods and emotional states’ (Montanari, 2015).
Why (regular) exercising matters
In order to be able to hold our posture, we need strong muscles. But even with the strongest muscles, if our posture is not good, our muscles won’t be able to do their work. Not only do muscles allow us to move, and stand up straight, they also form an important part of our shock absorbing system. ‘Strong, well-positioned muscles will lead to optimal shock absorption. Muscles that are poorly positioned due to improper posture will be unable to absorb shock at their optimal capacity. This is detrimental to bone and joint health’ (LaBianco, 2020). Bad posture impedes our shock and load absorbing ability, putting our muscles at a mechanical disadvantage. This places extra force onto the ligaments and joints, ultimately leading to joint breakdown. In other words, arthritis, or osteoarthritis to be exact. ‘With arthritis, the bones that form the joint rub onto each other and cause degeneration’ (LaBianco, 2020). Arthritis is a normal physiological process, that we all experience to more extend or less. It is the wear and tear of our joints. ‘Having proper posture and knowing how to strengthen and stretch muscles through their full ranges of motion will help slow down the process of the inevitable arthritis’ (LaBianco, 2020). For this reason, we need to move regularly, change our routines, and keep our flexibility. It’s more important here that we do this often and regular, then doing it for a long period, only once in a while. Regular movement of joints and muscles is very important. Being stationary with good posture for long periods can be worse than regular movement with bad posture (Dalkilinç, 2015).
Why the standard advice on posture is wrong
As I learnt from Olivier, the age-old advice of standing and sitting with a straight back is actually wrong, as is pulling back our shoulders. Or at least, this advice offers not the complete story. It’s a limited short-cut version of what’s actually beneficial. As Olivier explains here in the video, when we merely focus on having a straight back, this will result in a protrusion of our chest and a rounded lower back. When we pull our shoulders back, it results in neck strain. ‘When trying to improve our posture by standing up straight, we are often only making the problem worse, because by doing so we often add even more tension to a muscle system that is already under strain’ (Brennan, 2012). What we should do instead is aim to correct unhealthy habits when it comes to our posture. We should ensure a good fit between the environment and ourselves. The three rules of posture below offer some more detailed advice on how to achieve this.
The 3 rules of posture
Olivier Girard has identified three rules of posture which help us understand our bodies better. These three rules explain ninety precent of the postural deviations common to everybody (Girard, 2022).
Rule 1: Your back should neither be round and compressed (kyphosis), nor hollow (lordosis), nor twisted (scoliosis). 1a). When our body is round and compressed, or slouched forward, we risk developing a disc hernia (see picture 1.1). Another effect is that we push our head forward. This is the mother of all neck and head pains (Girard, 2022). Doing so will also compress our lungs, resulting in a sub-optimal lung function. A good check to know if our back is rounded or slouched, is when we feel the knobs of our vertebrae pointing out from our back. Thus, when you do something frequent, dangerous, or prolonged, you don’t want to have your back slouched.
1b). At the same time, we also don’t want our back to be hollow. This will result in a compression of the rear side of the vertebrae which leads to accelerated wear (see picture 1.2). Consequently, we increase the risk of osteo arthritis in the spine. Although this is something we all develop with age, as Olivier explained, the question of when and how severe this will be depends on our posture. When we have a hollow back this also results in contracted muscles, and a muscle that remains contracted becomes painful (Girard, 2022). Finally, when we have a hollow back our pelvic floor muscles become relaxed. If we do so during heavy weightlifting practices such as for instance CrossFit, the consequence could be incontinence. I'd say that's an argument for watching our posture when training. Hollow back standing is often related to our pelvis being too far forward (Girard, 2022). A quick test for this is checking if you can see your belly button. If so, you your pelvis is too far forward. When we stand up straight, our body should be nicely aligned, without our pelvis being pushed forward. A second quick test is the penguin test. Flapping your arms at the side of your body. If you do that, and your hands are touching your buttocks or thighs, your pelvis is too far forward. Instead, when your hands cross freely in front of your hip joints, your pelvis is well aligned (Girard, 2022).
1c). Lastly, we neither want our back to be twisted when under load, meaning a curving to either one of the sides, when looking at the spine either from the front or the back, or some form of rotation of the back. This too results in excessive wear of the vertebrae (see picture 1.3). Thus, simply telling someone to stand up straight is insufficient, as it often results in a hollow back as Olivier demonstrated in the video of our talk. Instead, we need to be aware of our body, and our weaknesses. I myself have the tendency to have somewhat of a hollow back when standing straight. I imagine this signals weakened abdomen and glutes, as I feel these become activated when I am standing straight without a hollow back. When doing it right, as a consequence of standing straight without a hollow back we will feel our glutes and abdominal muscles engaged.
Rule 2: Your neck should always be relaxed. ‘For every 15 degrees you move your head forward, your head gains 10 to 12 pounds [4.5-5.5 kg] of weight because of the increased strain on your cervical spine’ (Warren, 2019). The main aim is to always keep the neck relaxed so that the blood flow, lymphatic flow, and nervous flow are unimpeded (Girard, 2022). There are nine factors that create neck strain. five of these are head factors, and four are elbow factors. Head factors are 1). forward head posture, pulling your body forward, 2). deep flexion (of more than 20 degrees), 3). neck extension, also called a hollow neck, and 4). lateral flection, or 5). rotation. Next are the four elbow factors of neck problems. Our arms should be hanging/swinging relaxed next to our body, with a range of motion between 0-20 degrees, both in a forward/backward movement, and to the sides. See picture series 2.6. When moving more the 20 degrees, we need to actively use our muscles to get our elbows there. We will then feel it in our shoulders and neck. Therefore, the four elbow factors are 1). forward movement of the elbows (flexion), and 2). elbow movement to the sides (abduction), for more than 20 degrees, or 3). pulling the elbows backwards, or lastly, 4). raising the elbows, resulting in strain in the neck. Instead, we should aim to stay withing the 0-20 degree radius. When we go beyond this If we go beyond this, there will be strain in our shoulders and neck as a consequence. Thus, we need to assess what our activities does to our posture and shoulders and neck. When for instance working behind a desk, one needs to make sure that our elbows are relaxed, supported, and within the 0-20 degree radius. This comfortable range of motion within the 0-20 degree radius is not enormous. Therefore it is important to keep our keyboard and our mouse close to us. What we use most we need to keep closest (Girard, 2022). With rules 1 and 2, we are able to diagnose the sources of our posture inflicted problems. With rule number 3, we can resolve the issues.
Rule 3: To correct your posture, you need to proceed from the feet to the knees, pelvis, lower back, mid back, neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, and hands. This process starts with building a strong foundation. When going against gravity, which is what we’re doing with all our movements, we need to build a strong foundation. Thus, from our feet on the ground, we can move up section by section, to the knees, pelvis, lower back, mid back, neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, and hands, checking our movements and positions based on rules 1 and 2. At each section we must seek to stabilize, but not to fix (Girard, 2022). Stabilization is important, combined with continued flexibility. When reflecting on rules 1 and 2, we can seek to reassess and stabilize by going from the ground back up with rule 3. Whenever we need to rebuild our body and its posture, we need to do so proceeding from the feet upwards to the head, and from there down via the shoulders to ultimately our hands. (Girard, 2020). Thus, building stability from the ground to the extremities.
Stop using the small screens
During my talk with Olivier, I asked him about the use of mobile phones, and how this makes us slouch and almost crawl into the screen if we’re not careful. He pointed out something very obvious, but eye-opening nonetheless. ‘As soon as the screen is small, there will automatically be a need for more visual attention, especially if what’s on there is captivating. This will draw our head forward’ (Girard, 2022). If a desktop computer is a level one risk for your posture, consider laptops three times as risky, and smartphones six times as risky. So, one minute on your phone is the equivalent of six minutes on your desktop (Girard, 2022). Olivier therefore advises to ask ourselves the following: ‘do I really need to find myself in this situation? In other words, do you really need all the notifications on your phone? Technical solutions come next. For instance, do we need to answer this email on our mobile phone, or can it wait until we’re back home in front of our desktop. When we are on our phone, our entire posture is drawn into that small device. From an agronomical standpoint, the mobile phone is a disaster. As Olivier states, the mobile phone is an emergency device that should be kept for emergencies only (Girard, 2022). Thirdly, there is the time factor. After having utilized the best technical solutions, e.g., a big screen, at eye height, and an ergonomic well-adjusted office chair and/or combined with a standing desk, then comes the time factor. We benefit from limiting out time in any fixed posture, and by taking breaks. When it comes to using the mobile phone, we can send audio messages, instead of typing them. The aim always is, to limit the duration of exposure. Lastly, there are the possible behavioral changes we can make. But as Olivier rightfully argues, these are the hardest to change, and will therefore have the least direct impact on improving our posture.
Proper sitting when working (from home)
Many of you reading this might be working a lot, like myself, in front of a computer. I know I’ve had it more than once that I was deep into a particular project or task, only to find myself get up after I don’t know how many hours behind my screen, to feel soreness and pain in different parts of my body. I’m trying to be aware of this, but it happened more that I’d like. Last year, a neighbor and friend inspired me to get a sitting/standing desk. This really improved things for me. I inspired me to buy a better office chair too, and a gas-spring powered monitor arm which allows me to adjust the screen to the right height for any position, be it sitting, or standing. This all helped a lot, and I can recommend it highly. Your body will be grateful. To help with the sitting part of the desk work, I share some guidelines below for a proper sitting technique as recommended by Jeffry LaBianco:
Keep your gaze level (rather than looking up or down) in order to prevent unwanted stress on your neck;
Keep your chest up and out so that your collarbones are level. Doing this moves your shoulders back into their correct position;
Keep both feet flat on the floor. Do not cross your legs while in a seated position. Crossing your legs rotates your hips and puts unnecessary pressure on your lower back;
When seated in your chair, keep your feet flat on the floor with your knees bent at a 90-degree angle. This will take pressure off your knees and lower back;
Keep your rear end flat against your seat. Do not lean onto or favor one side more than the other. Leaning to one side will add stress to your lower back and can cause lower back pain.
Olivier Girard mentioned another very useful tip which I’d like to add in addition to the above. As mentioned earlier, he advises to keep the things you use most – keyboard, and mouse – closest to you. He also advises using an anti-slip mouse mat, as this will enable you to position it at a fixed place on your desk. My mouse mat is currently on the way, and I’m looking forward to trying this, as I often find my mouse-operating hand all over the table, with my elbows moved beyond the 20-degree range of motion as mentioned before at rule 2. What I also realized, with my new desk chair, I bought a Herman Miller Aeron, is that many chairs can’t really lower the arm rests low enough. I’m quite tall, and hence am equipped with long arms. Only with this new chair am I able to sufficiently lower the arm rests so they can support me without my shoulders remaining elevated. Only after having experienced this difference, I’m beginning to realize what a change this made.
When we slouch, having our head forward, it has a negative effect on our lung function as mentioned before. It also compresses the lymphatic system which reduces our immune function. We have a better immunity when our lymphatic system is decompressed. Therefore, having your head at the right place helps our immune system (Girard, 2022). That’s an eyeopener to me. Slouching also negatively impacts our emotional wellbeing. ‘Just as the body, mind and emotions are one, so the way we sit, stand or move directly affects the way we think and feel’ (Brennan, 2012). We can see this visually when someone is depressed. They are literally pulled down through muscular tension and by the way they hold their body, or perhaps, by the way their body holds them. When we feel down, changing our posture will be the surest way to change how we feel. ‘Since the mind and body are inseparable, adopting a rigid position or shape also affects the way we think or feel, because a tense body reflects rigid thinking, pain or the suppression of emotions. Poor posture can also be caused by the way we think. In order to start to improve our posture, it is essential that we treat the body, mind and emotions as a whole and not look upon them as separate entities’ (Brennan, 2012).
Posture’s positive spillover
The more we improve our posture, and become interested in improving our posture and health, the more not only our charisma, but also our performance will improve (Girard, 2022). When we hold our body well, everything we do will improve. The way we carry our body is a form of non-verbal communication. ‘We make sweeping judgments and inferences from body language’ (Cuddy, 2015). We do this amongst each other all the time. It affects big life decisions, who we hire, who we date. But not only do we influence others, and do others influence us, our body language also influences ourselves. Our thoughts, feelings, and physiology are influenced by our body language (Cuddy, 2015). Body language of power and dominance are about physical expansion. Making yourself big and taking up space. This is about opening up our body (Cuddy, 2015). Then, when we begin to open ourselves up, we can begin to feel and be powerful. From there, we actually become more powerful.
For muscles to be healthy and perform well, they need to be able to lengthen and shorten. Stretching therefore is critically important. Especially if we want to keep being able to move as we have been intended to do. Cats and dogs are great examples in this regard. They continuously stretch, and thereby reset themselves after a particular activity, or rest. This helps them transition between different phases and moments. Static activities, such as our work in front of the computer, or driving a car, do not make for a well-oiled body. Contrarily, this results in an asymmetrical pull from the muscles around the joints in our body. This can lead to serious wear, aches and pain. Regular stretching should therefore be included into our daily routines (Ferry, 2019).
Posture, time management and rest
‘Posture and time are very much connected, as can be seen in common expressions such as being ‘pressed for time’, ‘pushed for time’ ‘under pressure of time’, or ‘moving at breakneck speed’. This feeling that we have too little time causes harmful tension throughout the body’ (Brennan, 2012). We therefore need sufficient time for ourselves, and to do our work right, or our posture, and later on our health and wellbeing, will suffer. Lack of time, of course, is more a feeling than a reality. We all have the same 24 hours in a day. It’s only the choices and priorities that differ between us. My earlier post on goal setting, and my talk about this with Devon Harris might be useful to refer to in this regard. Instead of rushing, ‘a vital step in improving posture is to begin to give ourselves more time in everything we do. The habit of rushing from one thing to the next is a problem that affects us physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually. It can cause anxiety, which in extreme cases may permeate our whole existence until life feels hardly worth living. It affects us physically in such a way that our whole system is constantly on ‘red alert’, ageing us before our time’ (Brennan, 2012). When we’re rushing, from one task and deadline to the next, inevitably we feel tension. Take the time, when rushed, to notice this. Instead of rushing, we need to slow down, and have the space to breathe, take a deep sigh, and do things in a way so that they can also fulfill us, instead of only get done.
Also, when aiming to improve our posture, and our lives for that matter, it is important to be aware that frequency matters more than duration. For instance, it is better to take more short breaks, then to take one big and long break. When having a sitting/standing desk for instance, it’s important that we sit for no more than 30 minutes, and then move to standing for the equivalent of the time (Girard, 2022). The same is true for exercising. Better exercise shortly, frequently, than long, only a few times a week. A good example of this is a great 40-seconds upper body reset routine Olivier has on his YouTube channel which you can find here. Highly recommended! Also, we need to differentiate between psychological breaks and physical breaks. We need both. And sometimes physical activity can be a perfect psychological break. Lastly, I’d like to come back to the concept of time. In the book ‘Change Your Posture, Change Your Life’, a beautiful old Irish proverb is shared, which is worth resharing here:
Take time to work – it is the price of success.
Take time to meditate – it is the source of power.
Take time to play – it is the secret of perpetual youth.
Take time to read – it is the way to knowledge.
Take time to be friendly – it is the road to happiness.
Take time to laugh – it is the music of the soul.
Take time to love and be loved.
Be conscious of the habits you build
‘The way you sit, stand and move makes your muscles chronically tight and sore, compresses your joints and nerves, and puts stress on your bones, often to the point of causing significant pain and damage to the structure of your body’ (Warren, 2019). If your posture isn’t optimal, your muscles have to work harder to keep you upright and balanced. Some muscles will become tight and inflexible due to this. Others will be inhibited. Over time, these dysfunctional adaptations impair your body’s ability to deal with the forces on it (Dalkilinç, 2015).
When I was around 18 years of age, I bought an old used bike. This bike had a crooked steering, with the handlebar on the left side pointed inwards, while on the right side it was out. It caused me to ride it with my left knee peddling outside of the steering. to this day this hinders and impacts me. I don’t have this bike anymore for I don’t know how many years, and when I had it, I never thought anything of it. But still this morning, while biking on my time trail bike for my Ironman training, this old bike with the crooked steering continued to impact me. My left knee still tends to the left side, even though there is no crooked steering to peddle around anymore. After so many years, and so many kilometers biked on new and different bikes, the habit of biking with my left knee outwards from this old bike continues to impacts my movement. As Olivier told me during our talk on posture, it’s the behavior change that really is the last resort when it comes to improving your posture. Changing a habit is one of the hardest things, especially when it’s engraved into your physiology. Therefore, be very conscious of the habits you build, and the environment you create around yourself. They better be good or changing them might turn out much more difficult than you could imagine.
Through improving our posture, we improve our lives
Not only will a better posture lead to better health, an optimally functioning physiology, better lung function, the prevention and delay of arthritis, but our posture also changes our relationships with others. ‘Our bodies change our minds, and our minds change our behavior, and our behavior changes our outcomes’ (Cuddy, 2012). In her TED talk on body language, Amy Cuddy shares a beautiful story about how she was experiencing the imposter syndrome, and how she felt she wasn’t supposed to be there when she started working at Princeton. Years later, then working at Harvard, a student visited her office, exclaiming she wasn’t supposed to be there. Amy gave her the advice she had gotten at Princeton earlier, which was to fake it, until she became it. This brought the student to speak up, and ultimately become a part of the exchange and pass the course.
Our posture works in the same way. When we’re correcting our posture, at first it might feel uncomfortable and strange to us, after years and years of bad postural habits. However, when we persist, and rebuild these habits, aided by technical changes in our environments, we can become a new version of ourselves. We can establish a new relation with our bodies, and from there develop new relationships with those around us. Our posture will guide this process and provide us with the presence and confidence needed to start new chapters in our life. ‘How you carry yourself – your facial expressions, your postures, your breathing – all clearly affect the way you think, feel, and behave’ (Cuddy, 2015). Don’t aim for perfection, advises Olivier Girard. Instead, we have to aim for improvement. Improve what you can improve (Girard, 2022). As discussed during my talk with Michelle K. Johnston on connection and my talk with Devon Harris on setting goals, it is perfection that results in disconnection. Therefore, do your best, but don’t aim to be perfect. One thing is certain though, when you start making those small improvements on your posture and how you carry yourself, how imperfect as this might be, your life will begin to change for the better. Tiny tweaks can lead to big changes (Cuddy, 2012).
Image: from ourfitfamilylife.com
How we stand, sit, and move affects how we feel. Both physically, and mentally. To learn about the influence of our posture, and how to improve it I have talked to Olivier Girard, also known as the Posture Guru.
Olivier Girard is an internationally recognized expert in posture, ergonomics, and musculoskeletal disorders. He is also the author of ‘The Posture Manual’. This book teaches good posture in all daily activities, makes ergonomics easy to understand and offers a full posture therapy program over 3 months for fixing our poor posture inflicted problems. Olivier also has a blog and YouTube channel on improving your posture which I highly recommend.
I wouldn’t consider myself a person of poor posture, but this talk has been an eye-opener to me. I’ve learnt so much and found some very practical ways to improve my posture, ergonomics, and the way I work and carry myself. Highly recommended. Enjoy!
Website of Olivier Girard: https://www.trainyourposture.com
Brennan, Richard, 2012, Change Your Posture, Change Your Life: How the Power of the Alexander Technique Can Combat Back Pain, Tension and Stress. https://amzn.to/3qv6dre
Cuddy, Amy, 2012, Your Body Language May Shape Who You Are. TED talk. https://youtu.be/Ks-_Mh1QhMc, accessed on 15 January, 2022.
Cuddy, Amy, 2015, Presence: Bringing Your Boldest Self to Your Biggest Challenges. https://amzn.to/3I7TL6F
Dalkilinç, Murat, 2015, The Benefits of Good Posture. TED talk. https://youtu.be/OyK0oE5rwFY, accessed on 15 January, 2022.
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